Yesterday’s Daily Telegraph ran a story with a headline that was disturbing by any measure. It read “‘Chilling’ levels of child-on-child rape in Middle England.” The story takes its cue from the launch of three reports from the Children’s Commissioner for England, published yesterday as part of the agency’s wider inquiry into child sexual exploitation in gangs and groups.
It is hard to imagine a more disturbing crime than the sexual exploitation of children by other children. Moreover, it is plausible to argue – as the reports do – that the problem is at risk of being overshadowed by concerns about other forms of child sexual abuse. Nonetheless, the claim that such crimes are widespread is striking.
You might be inclined to question the Telegraph’s version of the statements from the Children’s Commissioner inquiry. (It would hardly be the first time this newspaper has chosen to paint a distressing portrait of the nation’s youth.) But other news coverage has taken a similar tack. For instance, the BBC website stated that the inquiry “warned that the problem [of child sexual exploitation by gangs and groups] was prevalent in every area of England, and was not restricted just to low-income, inner-city neighbourhoods but ‘in every type of neighbourhood, rural, urban, deprived, not deprived.’”
In fact, it is hard to find any evidence in the Children’s Commissioner’s reports to support statements about the level or spread of child-on-child sexual exploitation. There are three main sources of information for the inquiry’s evidence base. The first is material from the police and other agencies. The inquiry’s final report does discuss this data, but draws no conclusions about the level of child-on-child abuse. This is not surprising. It is all but impossible to make meaningful estimates of prevalence from these sources, given well-recognised problems of under-reporting, varied and changing definitions and the particular challenges in investigating such crimes.
The second source of information is a piece of qualitative research by the University of Bedfordshire. This focused on six neighbourhoods that are described as ‘gang-affected.’ It involved interviews with 188 children and young people, most of whom were recruited because they had direct involvement with gangs. Given its small, unrepresentative sample and tight geographical focus, this research cannot tell us anything about wider trends or prevalence. Indeed the report itself warns that “the nature of the sample… must be borne in mind when considering the wider implications of the findings.” (p.15)
The third information source is a study of young people’s attitudes to, and understanding of, sexual consent. This study did not gather any data on young people’s own sexual experiences (it used video material to prompt discussion). So it cannot shed any light on their personal experiences of sexual exploitation, let alone provide the basis for wider claims about the scale of the problem.
Hence it is hard to see how the evidence presented in the reports can justify quotes like these, from Deputy Children’s Commissioner Sue Berelowitz:
“While we have published chilling evidence of this violence in gang-associated contexts, we know too that it is more widespread than that. This is a deep malaise within society, from which we must not shirk.” (Quoted in the Daily Telegraph piece)
“We have shown for the first time the scale of sexual violence being perpetrated by some of our children and young people against other children and young people – particularly in gang-involved neighbourhoods but I have to say we have anecdotal evidence that this is happening in other areas as well.” (Speaking on BBC Breakfast News – see video link from the BBC website.)
It may seem harsh to criticise the Children’s Commissioner over numbers in the face of such an obviously disturbing phenomenon. But surely a charity whose role is to be the champion of children and young people’s rights and perspectives needs to be cautious and balanced when venturing into such emotive territory.
The picture of widespread child-on-child sexual exploitation feeds into wider debates about children and young people’s sexual attitudes, behaviour and morals. Much of this wider discourse fuels what child psychologist Tanya Byron has called ephebiphobia: the irrational fear of young people. In a 2009 article (for the Telegraph, ironically) she describes an ephebiphobic society as one that “views young people in negative and judgmental terms, where the media report (with barely disguised glee) the latest hideous crimes and abuses of our young.” The social historian Hugh Cunningham – whose book The Invention of Childhood offers a rich, thousand-year overview of British children’s lives – has spoken (at a debate on childhood organised by the National Children’s Bureau) of the emergence of what he called a ‘declinist narrative’ about children – in plain terms, the growing dominance of the view that today’s children are going to hell in a handcart. Such a view is distorted and damaging, and needs to be challenged.
At a more practical level, if agencies and decision-makers are to respond effectively to sexual exploitation, including child-on-child sexual violence, they need a sound picture of its patterns and prevalence. In a world of limited resources, we risk wasting time and effort if we leave agencies poorly informed about the geographical or socio-economic scope of the problem.
We need to make sure we tackle the range of threats faced by children and young people – including the threats that some of them pose to others. But we do them no favours if we make alarming claims about the scale of these threats without the evidence to back them up. It is also crucial that children’s agencies think carefully about how such claims might provide rich pickings for those in the media who, when reporting on the state of the nation’s youth, like nothing more than to scapegoat and scaremonger.
A very interesting and pertinent intervention Tim, I hope it get’s at least something like the attention that the CC got yesterday; but given the media’s love of a horror story regardless of it’s veracity, I will not hold my breath.
Thanks Adrian. Clearly it’s a sensitive issue, and one where criticism can be taken the wrong way. So I appreciate the comment.
Even with the stray apostrophe! It was good to see you on Monday too. Interesting times, as ever…
Agree with some media misrepresentation and Tim a great take. However, peer-on-peer abuse is a real issue for some children and OCCE has a duty to report on its findings. Lisa D
Thanks for commenting Lisa. I agree it’s an issue and a legitimate topic for OCCE’s work. But I’m worried about OCCE’s claims about the scale of the issue, and think you need to show evidence to back up some of the claims your agency makes. I looked hard in your reports but couldn’t find this.
Although the three reports published this week did not include information about the prevalence of child sexual exploitation in Gangs and Groups, the Interim report of the Inquiry published last November did. It provided the most accurate data to date on the prevalence of child sexual exploitation in gangs and groups gathered using the Office of the Children’s Commisisoner’s legislative powers as set out in the Children Act 2004.
It is true that the report published last November did not break down the data by the different contexts in which children were sexually exploited. However, that information was available to the Inquiry panel. The interim report is available on the Office of the Children’s Commissioner for England’s website.
Thanks for your comments Oliver. I did not look at the interim report, as I assumed that the final report would include material that might support claims about patterns. I have now looked at the interim report, and have not found any material to support the claims made on Tuesday. Indeed the evidence I did find tends to point in the other direction, suggesting as it does that child-on-child sexual exploitation is focused in some areas and neighbourhoods rather than others.
The section on perpetrators (pp 98 – 109) shows that the vast majority (perhaps 70%) were from 5 constabulary areas. As you say, there is no discussion of the types of neighbourhood or area. However, the interim report notes earlier (p.79) that “It was unusual for evidence to be submitted on children who had been sexually exploited by a gang but who did not live in a gang neighbourhood or were not in a relationship with a gang member (either as an intimate partner or family member).” I also note that one of the key risk factors for children flagged up in the interim report is ‘living in a gang-affected neighbourhood’ (p.83).
As I said above, it would be wrong to assume that the pattern of abuse shown by existing work gives an accurate picture. But I cannot find any concrete evidence to back up the claims of widespread child-on-child sexual victimisation – of significant abuse that goes beyond gang-affected areas – that were being made on Tuesday.
If I have missed anything in any of your reports, do let me know.
I am confident that we have the evidence to support the statement you questioned and sorry if this was not clear in the reports of the Inquiry. A member of staff at the Office of the Children’s Commissioner would be happy to discuss the evidence with you should you wish to get in touch.
Thanks for the offer Oliver. However, I think that the OCCE should put any evidence it has in the public domain, given the controversial nature of the claims.